He was arrested by Catholic authorities in France and fled to Geneva, where he was arrested by Protestant authorities, and burnt at the stake “atop a pyre of his own books”.
But this was because of his heretical opinions on the Trinity, and not for any of his anatomical discoveries.
The Church was a great patron of science, no one believed in a flat earth, Galileo had it coming, et cetera.
Unam Sanctam Catholicam presents some of these stories and explains why they’re less of a science-vs-religion slam dunk than generally supposed.
Lucilio Vanini was a philosopher/scientist/hermeticist/early heliocentrism proponent who was most notable as the first person recorded to have claimed that humans evolved from apes – though his theories and arguments were kind of confused and he probably got it right mostly by chance.
Pietro d’Abano was a fourteenth century philosopher and doctor who helped introduce Arabic medicine to the West.
He was arrested by the Inquisition and accused of consorting with the Devil.
He died before a verdict was reached, but the Inquisition finished the trial, found him guilty, and ordered his corpse burnt at the stake.
But this may have been because of his interest in weird prophecies, not because of his scientific researches.
Michael Servetus was a sixteenth-century anatomist who made some early discoveries about the circulatory and nervous system.